Wednesday, January 22, 2020

Metaphysics, Epistemology and George Orwells Nineteen Eighty-Four (198

Metaphysics, Epistemology and Orwell's 1984 Since the beginning of recorded time, philosophers have pondered questions of metaphysics (what exists, what is real) and epistemology (how we know what exists and is real, our proof). However in George Orwell's 1984, the need to answer these questions no longer exists for the majority, as the ruling party has created a new reality for its citizens, one in which what is real and what truly exists cannot be questioned. But on the flip side, the protagonist of 1984, Winston Smith, finds himself constantly searching for what is real in his life, and in a larger sense, in the society and world that surrounds him. In its simplest terms, metaphysics can be seen as a question of what it is that we know to be real, what truly exists. In a deeper sense, as defined by Aristotle, metaphysics attempts to understand the fundamental nature of all reality. Closely related to metaphysics is epistemology. Epistemology looks to define what knowledge is, how it is obtained, and what it is that makes anything knowledge at all. It serves to establish proof, a warrant for what we consider to be real, thus validating our knowledge of our own reality. Within 1984, Orwell, or rather "The Party" has created Big Brother, a larger-than-life character known to all citizens, uniting and influencing all of Oceania. To the citizens of Oceania, there is no question that Big Brother does not exist. To them Big Brother is real, he exists in the flesh just as the rest of the citizens of the nation. Almost no one entertains the proposition that he is merely a character, created to enforce party agendas and goals. His face appears in movies, on posters; he is virtually everywhere. Citizens are ... ...are being told. They will never know if what they are being told is the truth and will never distinguish between what is actually true and what is just mindless babble and propaganda. Works Cited Anderson, Alan. "Metaphysics: Multiple Meanings." April 14, 2000. May 31, 2000. Floyd, Nathan T. "Rhetoric & Epistemology." November 29, 1995. May 31, 2000. Khoury, Jonathan A. "1984 in 1996: How Orwell's 1949 Classic Describes our Government." May 31, 2000. Orwell, George. 1984. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc., 1949. Hyperlinks metaphysics epistemology 1984

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